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Author Topic: Last two days of the Dyatlov group: 4. Hypothermia during the fatal night for 7  (Read 4286 times)

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January 18, 2024, 10:58:04 AM
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Arjan


This is part 4 of a possible timeline of the last two days of the Dyatlov group is drafted, assuming: 
1.   The map below reflects the situation.
2.   No outsiders have entered the map until the arrival of the first search party.
3.   The members of the Dyatlov group have acted as ‘may be expected’.
4.   No internal violence within the group.
5.   No manipulation with the photos from the search parties and from the mortuary.
6.   The information in the autopsy reports reflects the professional findings of the coroner.



Summary
Next to a possible timeline for the fatal night, this message proofs that – in case group members had left the tent in the beginning of the evening – they had not been able to perform coherently common activities during the second half of the fatal night.

Seven group members had been found by both search parties lying in an uncommon posture for death by hypothermia: they had been placed in the postures (as found by both search parties) several hours to one day after their heart had stopped beating (in the progress of hypothermia).
It is highly likely that these 7 group members had been placed in postures to be later found by others.

This shows that:
1.   Either: in case 9 group members had left the tent at the same time, no group member had been able to place these 7 group members in the postures wherein they had frozen one to two days later. This had been to be done by outsiders.
2.   Or: two – or better three – group members had been in good position to survive the fatal night for 7 group members. Within the assumptions stated above, the only place for surviving the fatal night had been the tent (probably re-erected on one ski pole). In case it had been three group members, these three had been able to rotate under the blankets during the night to warm the middle group member. The possible group member had never been found by both search parties: this group member may have returned the on February 2nd on the track made by the group on the days before. She/he had been well able to arrive at Ushma or 2nd settlement on February 2nd mid-afternoon.

1 February 1959

Around 15:30 pm
The progression of hypothermia within Semyon and Thibo had already started at 15:30 pm at the moment that both had been seriously wounded via being briefly enveloped in the blast wave.
Due to their (practical) immobility – caused by their serious injuries – it is estimated that from that moment the body core temperature of Semyon and Thibo had started to drop around 1.5 degrees Celsius every hour.

Around 15:45 pm
On the bottom of the ravine, Lyudmila had died from her fatal rib cage fracture (causing fatal internal bleedings) at the same place where she had been enveloped by the blast wave around 15 minutes before. The autopsy report of Lyudmila states as conclusion:
'Based on the forensic examination of the body of L. A. Dubinina I think that the death of Dubinina was caused by massive hemorrhage into the right ventricle, multiple bilateral rib fractures, and internal bleeding into the thoracic cavity.
The said damage was probably caused by an impact of great force causing severe closed lethal trauma to the chest of Dubinina. The trauma was caused during life and is the result of high force impact with subsequent fall, throw or bruise to the chest of Dubinina’.
Probably the white-out – due to the second (decompression) stage of the blast wave – had evaporated/disappeared.


Around 16:00 pm
The 6/7 group members at the tent site had recovered from being enveloped by the blast wave. Probably they had suffered from hearing impairment due to eardrum rupture by the blast wave.
Remark: the autopsy reports don’t include any reference to results of otoscopy (looking inside the outer ear canal); at that time done with a forehead mirror (and nowadays performed using an otoscope - as visible before the ear of the girl), see image below.



They had re-erected part of the tent on one ski pole in the manner as found by the first search party, see image below.



In the direction of the ravine, the 6/7 group member had not seen any sign from Lyumila, Semyon and Thibo: by now, they should have been on their way back to the tent (after fetching running water).
Upon some deliberations, it had been decided that:
•   Alexander, Igor, Yuri Dor and Yuri Kri – ‘the four’ – had started to descend the hillside to the ravine to look for Lyumila, Semyon and Thibo.
•   Zinaida and Rustem – ‘the two’ - had stayed at the tent site. Zinaida (probably) or Rustem (maybe) had been injured (while the severity of the injury had not been clear): one of both would look after the injured other one.
•   Probably a signal code by flashlight had been agreed upon, in case the situation of the injured person's would worsen to such an extent that additional assistance had been required.
•   To guide the ‘the four’ back to the tent after sunset, ‘the two’ would signal at fixed times to indicate the direction back to the tent.
•   ‘The two’ had placed the flashlight – to be used for communication with ‘the four’ – on top of the tent with the aim of easy and quick access to the flashlight.
•   Halfway to the ravine, ‘the four’ would place another flashlight – switched on – to indicate a) the direction for the signals from ‘the two’, and b) as beacon for ‘the four’ to indicate the direction back to the tent.
•   In case a faint wind had blown from the north-west, smoke from a campfire would be a signal to ‘the two’ that ‘the four’ had to stay (part of) the night in the ravine.   
•   Sufficient water for the evening had been transferred from other drink bottles to the drink bottles of ‘the two’. 
‘The four’ had been adequately clothed for a return trip to the ravine, that takes normally around one hour. Very probably they could have kept their body core temperature on 37 degrees Celsius for another 2 hours by performing activities etc.
Very probably ‘the four’ had encountered halfway the descend a refrozen (slippery) top layer on the snow (melted before by the pressure wave).
The Dyatlov group had no crampons with them on the tour.
‘The four’ had walked on socks to have a better grip on the probably refrozen snow downhill. See for an explanation: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2010/mar/09/improbable-research-icy-socks-over-shoes
‘The four’ had started walking downhill two by two on both sides of the footsteps made by of Lyudmila, Semyon and Thibo one hour before.
Zinaida and Rustem had been able to avoid any progress of hypothermia until both had left the tent the next morning, because the partial re-erected tent on one ski pole – with sufficient blankets – had provided an excellent emergency bivouac.
The progression of hypothermia had started in the bodies of ‘the four’ when ‘they had started walking downhill. It is estimated that:
•   ‘The four’ had been able to maintain their core temperature at around 37 degrees Celsius during maximal two hours until 18:00 pm (by moving around and by doing all kind of activities).

Around 16:15 pm
‘The four’ had arrived halfway down the hillside to the ravine.
As agreed, they had positioned the flashlight – switched on – as beacon.

Around 16:30 pm
‘The four’ had arrived in the ravine and (maybe/probably) they had found Semyon and Thibo quickly. The body core temperature of Semyon and Thibo had already dropped to a little above 35 degrees Celsius. Both had started to enter the stage of mild hypothermia. Their bodies had begun to shake violently by its – involuntary – maximum shivering response, in order the generate body heat by contracting their muscles (very painful for Semyon with his broken ribcage).
‘The four’ had started to arrange an adequate place – very probably the den – for the night. In case a faint wind had been from the northeast, the den had been protected for this wind by the cedar hillside.
The posture wherein Lyudmila had been found, does not show that she had been lifted/transported from the bottom of the ravine to the den.

It is highly likely ‘the four’ – or one/two of them – had noted that Lyudmila had stopped breathing.
It may well be that one or two group members had considered the possibility of an upper airway obstruction by the tongue: ‘Mild upper airway obstruction secondary to the tongue is more common, and this usually responds to repositioning of the patient's head or a jaw thrust’, page 25 in: https://emergency.cdc.gov/masscasualties/word/blast_curriculum_3h.doc
Remark: 
The normal emergency procedure for an upper airway obstruction is ‘Cricothyrotomy’ or ‘Tracheostomy’ (small incision from the outside in the upper throat to create a small hole for breathing through), see further: https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/critical-care-medicine/respiratory-arrest/surgical-airway
It may well be that one of the group members had removed the tongue as amateur emergency surgery: he may have thought that herewith the upper airway obstruction might have been removed.

It is high likely that ‘the four’ had noted that Lyudmila’s heartbeat had stopped, and as a consequence they had given all priority to caring for ‘the two’ and for arranging – as best as possible – a stay for the night in/near the ravine/cedar.

Around 17:00 pm
Sunset, within half an hour it would be dark.
Based on:
•   the activities of ‘the four’ and
•   on ‘view’ from halfway the cedar to the tent site,
it had probably been a cold half-moon lit night: visibility had been good taking into account the circumstances.
The body core temperature of Semyon and Thibo had dropped below 35 degrees.
Remark:
With every 0.5 ⁰C decline of core temperature below 35 ⁰C, the metabolism of the brain drops with 3 – 5 %.
The first outline for the improvised “den” had been ready.
The campfire near the cedar had been lit. The smoke from the fire – traveling southwest by the wind – may also have been a signal to Zinaida and Rustem in the tent, that ‘the four’ had to spend (part of) the night near the ravine.
By doing steady work – burning mostly fat and some carbohydrates – ‘the four’ had maintained their body core temperature at 37 degrees Celsius.

Around 17:30 pm
The body core temperature of Semyon and Thibo had already dropped to around 34 degrees Celsius.
The floor of the den had been covert with pine branches. Yuri Dor and Yuri Kri had taken of their outer garments for serve as insulation for the four seat at the floor of the den.
It had been decided that:
•   Yuri Dor and Yuri Kri would keep themselves warm at the campfire near the cedar and on of both would climb from time to time halfway up in the cedar to look for any signals by the flashlight (SOS?) from the tent site.
•   Alexander and Igor would take care of Semyon and Thibo and both would alternately walk to the cedar to see the situation at the cedar (and to keep themselves warm).
From now on, the body core temperature of ‘the four’ had started to drop steadily around 0.75 degrees Celsius every hour.

Around 19:30 pm
The body core temperature of Semyon and Thibo had already dropped to around 31 degrees Celsius. Half an hour ago both had entered the stage of profound hypothermia: both had fallen in apathy and a little later in stupor. Both their bodies had lost the urge to keep itself warm by shivering.
The body core temperature of ‘the four’ had dropped to around 35.5 degrees Celsius: they had started to shiver, and their hands and feet has started to hurt by the cold. Soon they would enter the stage of mild hypothermia.

Between 20:00 pm and 20:30 pm
The body core temperature of Semyon and Thibo had already dropped below 29 degrees Celsius. From then on, both had remained unconscious: recovery had only been possible in a specialized hospital.
The autopsy report of Thibo states: ‘On the left forearm there are two watches: a Sportivnye watch showing the time 8 hours, 14 minutes, 24 seconds, and a Pobeda brand watch showing the time 8 hours, 39 minutes’. 
It is highly likely that Thibo and Semyon had never stood up again on February 1st, 1959, after 20:30 pm.

Around 22:00 pm
Probably, Alexander and Igor had continued to take care for Semyon and Thibo until their heartbeat had stopped when the body core temperature had dropped below 25 degrees Celsius around 22:30 pm: recovery from this stage of hypothermia had been critical, even in a specialised hospital.
The body core temperature of ‘the four’ had dropped to around 33.5 degrees Celsius. The last hour, their brain enzymes had begun to operate less efficient. They had noticed that they ought to be afraid, but fear had been a vague idea somewhere behind a veil. An important thought had flashed their mind; a moment later they had to do their best to remember this important thought.
According to the autopsy reports, the death of Yuri Dor and Yuri Kri had occurred 6 – 8 hours after their last meal. The amount of urine in the bladder was 150 cm3 and 500 cm3. Two death causes are obvious:
•   A higher rate of cooling of the body core than 0.75 degrees Celsius (e.g. 2 degrees Celsius) every hour due to being badly dressed (and the campfire had extinguished) or
•   Their death cause had been a so-called ‘rewarming shock’ after been affected by hypothermia, e.g. when they had returned to the campfire from a return trip to the ravine. Rewarming causes an unexpected (fast and often fatal) falling cardiac output and a sudden drop in blood pressure.

2 February 1959

Around 0:00 am
The body core temperature of Alexander and Igor had dropped to around 32 degrees Celsius.
Alexander and Igor had fallen in stupor: a kind of dull trance.

Around 3:00 am
The body core temperature of Alexander and Igor had dropped to around 30 degrees Celsius.
The hearts of Alexander and Igor had started to beat arrhythmic, because electrical impulses for the heart had been hampered by undercooling. Now their hearts had pumped below two-thirds of its normal amount. Lack of oxygen and slowed metabolism of their brain had caused visual and auditory hallucinations.

A similar kind of hallucination had caused that Beck Weathers had started to walk again during his descend from Mount Everest: this has resulted in his survival during the fatal night for several fellow climbers during bad cold weather. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beck_Weathers

The place where Igor had been found, gives the impression that Igor may well had started ‘to walk home’ in the direction of the tent (but not in the track made of the footsteps by ‘the seven’) during this stage of hypothermia. If so, he had not succeeded very far.
If so, this may be the reason why Zinaida and Rustem had found Igor comparably late the next day on their way back to the tent and both had carried Igor – under armpits and by knees – some distance while Igor had already developed rigor mortis in the joints of his limbs.

Around 5:30 am
The body core temperature of Alexander and Igor had dropped to around 29 degrees Celsius.
Both had been unconscious; careful recovery from this stage of hypothermia had only been possible in a specialised hospital.
The autopsy report of Igor states: ‘On the lower third portion of the left forearm there is a Zvezda brand watch; the hands of the watch show 5 hours, 31 minutes’.
It is highly likely that Alexander and Igor had never stood up again after 5:30 am on February 2nd, 1959.
From this moment on, the body core temperature of Alexander and Igor had dropped around 1.5 degrees Celsius per hour.

Around 8:30 am
Sunset.
The body core temperature of Alexander and Igor had dropped below 25 degrees Celsius.
The heartbeat of Alexander and Igor had stopped; recovery from this stage of hypothermia had been critical even in a specialised hospital.

In the tent, Zinaida and Rustem didn’t smell any smoke from the campfire: not a good sign for the fate of the seven other group members.

Basic information about hypothermia in a cold environment
•   General: Stark, Peter, Last breath – The limits of Adventure. New York: Ballantine Books, 2001, Charter 1: ‘Hypothermia’
•   Rewarming shock: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12121023_Rewarming_from_hypothermia_Newer_aspects_on_the_pathophysiology_of_rewarming_shock
•   Hallucination as self-protective behaviour: A hallucination had caused that Beck Weathers had started to walk again during his descend from Mount Everest: this has resulted in his survival during the fatal night for others. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beck_Weathers
•   Thermal burrowing behaviour:  Rothschild MA, Schneider V. "Terminal burrowing behaviour" – a phenomenon of lethal hypothermia. See: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7632602
•   Paradoxical undressing: See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothermia and https://www.livescience.com/41730-hypothermia-terminal-burrowing-paradoxical-undressing.html
•   ‘Henssge nomogram’: See: https://www.forens-med.ru/tools/henssge_en/ : Body weight: 70 kg.; Ambient temperature: - 10 °C; Body temperature: 25 °C; correction factor: 1.1 due to 3-4 thin layers of clothing.
•   Post mortem lividity: See: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/livor-mortis#:~:text=Postmortem%20lividity%20(livor%20mortis)%20is,purple%20marks%20on%20the%20body
•   Rigor Mortis: See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigor_mortis and https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/rigor-mortis

« Last Edit: January 20, 2024, 11:07:42 AM by Arjan »
 

January 19, 2024, 06:37:42 AM
Reply #1
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Axelrod


 

January 19, 2024, 10:27:27 AM
Reply #2
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Arjan


 

February 27, 2024, 05:54:17 PM
Reply #3
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KathleenDSmith1


 Everyone and Teddy:

First, of the evening 4 pm of all 9 hikers' fatal injuries, we all know that the stove was "not" assembled, 2nd both Yuri's were found together and everyone agrees that the post-Morten photo shows that, the temperature of their bodies was in a different area (heated) because of the hand/blue or brown and peeling of the skin, but Yuri K. stomach has not discolored of frostbite/hypothermia??..

Treating Hypothermia
HT I: Mild Hypothermia, 35-32 degrees. Normal or near normal consciousness, shivering.
HT II: Moderate Hypothermia, 32-28 degrees. Shivering stops, consciousness becomes impaired.
HT III: Severe Hypothermia, 24-28 degrees. ...
HT IV: Apparent Death, 15-24 degrees.
HT V: Death from irreversible hypothermia.

sending images:








« Last Edit: February 27, 2024, 06:09:53 PM by KathleenDSmith1 »
 

February 28, 2024, 07:22:35 PM
Reply #4
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GlennM


It seems to me that any sort of seismic blasting would leave considerable debris whether done from ground level or a tree. Even in Soviet Russia in 1959, I think anyone who arrranges for a controlled seismic blast will have warning signs or flagging tape to secure the area. Surely the local forester would know of this and would inform the tourists as well. Mansi move through these areas at will. I seriously doubt any blast was done with a timer. All would require a run of wire from end to end. None of these things were noted by rescuers. It did not happen that way.


It is illogical to cover up a supposed crime by displacing a tent with no regard for the location of bodies. The physical distance between tent and the remains only increases interest, not the opposite.

None of the bodies gave any indication they were in any way hidden. Quite the contrary.

None of the bodies were thawed, examined, dressed up and replaced in the woods. Nor were they autopsied twice. Given the thoroughness of the forensic exams, the cadavers would be in a poor condition for display even after only one autopsy.

The main outcry from the relatives of the victims was the tardiness of the search effort. Once begun, it was long and costly search.There was no political " push back" silencing the relatives for supporting enemies of the State. There was no directive for the Army to back off. Nobody profited by their deaths. Only suffering happened.

Extraordinary theories require extraordinary evidence. It is lacking. What's left it a tragedy brought about by conditions more severe than expected among people less prepared than necessary.


« Last Edit: February 29, 2024, 06:16:23 AM by GlennM »
We don't have to say everything that comes into our head.
 
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