In March 2019 to Dyatlov pass go the command left representatives of Office Public Prosecutor by Sverdlovsk region, and press, and TV. It has been connected by that the Office Public Prosecutor has begun check under the statement of the press that on case of Dyatlov group it is necessary draw the official conclusion.
It does not mean opening has put again. Under the law it is cannot be made. It should be made for this purpose that it would be possible estimate correctness of conclusions case which it is closed in 1959
Some days before them we were on pass and have spent number of check experiments, on the same questions that the Office Public Prosecutor has presented. It has been made that it would be possible compare results and draw conclusions on truthfulness of this conclusion.
Here I have described one their such experiments which we have spent directly on a place of events.
Notes about expedition March 2019.
Or: A and B sit on pipe **pass with 6 to 12 March *).
*) letter A and B it is initial letters of surnames A – Aleseenkov (Shura), B - Borzenkov,
**) In Russian folklore there is such children's comic riddle: “A and B were sitting on the pipe, A has fallen, B be gone, what remains on the pipe?”©
Note #1. Snow research on Holatchahl mountain and near tent place.
First of all it is necessary describe shortly snow conditions of this year, and compare it to February, 1959.
During January current year and first half of February snow condition was little level, than it quite reminds circumstances of 1959. But since the middle of February( in this year), became abnormal from the point of view quantity the dropped out snow. For example, would be on "pass" since midday on March, 05th till early evening on March, 12th. At us in ravine valley “4th tributary of Lozva@ (acronym it is “4TL”) has falled out approximately 60 … 70 cm (2…3 ft) fresh snow. Till the morning on March, 11th, snow of different intensity went almost continuously. On several points which could be identified in photos of searches March, 1959, we have measured difference in height of snow 2019 and 1959. It made from + 40 cm (1?5 ft) to + 90 cm (3 ft) in different places. The height of snow cover of March 1959года was (by our estimations) from 60 to 90 cm (2…3 ft) from earth level. It would be desirable to hope that this level (earths) has not changed since then.
From here it is possible conclude that our snow measurements which be made on slope are excess over level of snow 1959. It has occurred about 2 reasons:
1. The climate in Earthe became warmer about 60 years ago, and as consequence, the saturation moisture of coming warm air has increased.
2. This year (from the middle of February) was is abnormal about snow level. We could compare it with January, 2015; February 2014; and March 2012 and 2013
Snow researches on mountain slope about possible snow troubles with Dyatlov group were one of the basic points
of our menu
of our program. I mean any avalanches and "boards of snow ".
Unfortunately under the full program all did not manage be made, since there was only one day with decent weather, but also it has not been completely devoted purely to snow because it was necessary to make and something under other programs. We counted from 2 days, or well let at least, from 1,5 day.
What estimate possibility of snow motions and other troubles of this case I used techniques which were recommended by the senior lecturer of the Moscow State Lomonosov University Victor Vladimirovich Popovnin (one of the best specialist of world for avalanche), even before our departure to pass in 2015. Thanks him very much, about he has found time after all university affairs and has arrived to my home in evening before our departure to pass. It has spent time for me so much, how many it was necessary that I would try liquidate my stupidity in techniques of estimation study snow. ***) As I believe in damage own rest before next intensive working day.
***) Unfortunately I am not the expert in glaciology and avalanches. My range scientific interests is the aviation both space-rocket biomechanics and ergonomics. And as is survival rate in extreme conditions of environment on cold, and in the wild nature of the North.
The technique research consisted of following points:
1. We must made measured and fixed place next parametres:
date and time,
local steepness of slope,
direction and speed of wind.
The photo/video fixing of devices and tools which are used at research in addition becomes.
2. Snow comes off on depth to ground around the investigated phenomenon, cuts are levelled (are not smoothed down!) planes of cuts about revealing of division layers also are attentively studied. The photo and-or video shooting with the established ruler or roulette tape is made. Arrangements places of division depth of layers from ground level and are marked it.
3.On contrast background analysis of grains snow in 3 groups: <1 mm; 1 … 2 mm;> 3 mm (1 mm = 0.039 in). The shootting picture near to ruler with divisions in mm or becomes less.
4. The snow temperature is measured on layers and on border of division layers. Indications act in film through from 3 … 5 mines after sensor installation.
5. Is spent gauging density of snow in each layer.
6. Made measuring to downfall of reference rod to snow layer. The dynamometer measures value at which the rod has started move ahead into snow.
7.The “Shift test”: It can be columns as size 1 х 1 m or 3 ft 3 in x 3 ft 3 in (as in special case - 20 х 20 cm or 0.656 x 0.656 ft) dig, and then the adaptation with two parallel plates makes attempt of shift each of layers (consistently on each layer) in parallel for plane of layer with use dynamometer and lever use (in case of need). If there is shift layer along loss of strong, we mast be fixed the maximum value of the indication dynamometer, and it be fixed. If there is a destruction of all snow layer this result is fixed.
8.The weather report for the previous time (change temperature data of air, parameters of wind, deposits) is whenever possible applied.
We had been chose a platform located of 20 m (~65 ft) to the north from prospective place of tent “as Harlan (оne from researchers of the given theme which very well understands positioning of a place of tent)” (**** - though I, and by an estimation with photoslides-film in 2015, and am speculative in March 2019, I read that it should be metres on 2. 3 above and on ~ 10 to the north. But now not about that speech). As Shura has told: “What not spoil to professionals on original place”. Under professionals he meant, public prosecutors and delegation “KP” (Komsomolskaya Pravda) -newspaper and TV showman Andrey Malakhov which there were in week after us and incorporated the professional Topographers and the glaciologist scientific who was the same V.V.Popovnin. The slope steepness in "our" place was more than on “ true place of tent” - about 20 degrees, against we (with Shura together) measure hour and one half before ~ 12 … 16 degrees. (***** - the data on gaugings see in the message of Shura from – it is in Russan forum). Therefore our experiment should be, as “restriction from above”.
Point #3 and #6 we did not: #3 - because was wind, though and not strong, but wind which us would not allow make all the same it (would blow off granules), and #6 - in kind of absence of suitable core and the adaptation to dynamometer – “ measure compression”.
Point #1 It is great difficulties has not caused. The data was such:
Date and time – 3/11/2019, have begun at 10.15 UTC; have ended at 12.59 UTC (Regional time is UTC+5)
Place co-ordinates - N = 61о 45,521 `; E = 59o 25,770 `; H = 2961 ft (902.5 m). Time 08:27.19 UTC
Local steepness of “our” slope is 19о
Air temperature is tо =-4,7C ( 23.5 F)
Direction and speed of wind - 6 … 8 m/s (9…15.5 kt), from Western.
Point #2. It is possible illustrated following pictures:
Such cut has as result turned out here:
Full thickness of layer of 1,86 m (6 ft 1 in) from the earth (on roulette). For scale nearby there is “one dummy ski by Shura”
, height is 1,5 m (4 ft 11 in)
The work total amount can be estimated on the thrown out snow, but it is necessary to consider that all snow has got to shot
#4. We measured temperature of snow in 6 points:
= - 7,2C ( 19 F) - layer top
=-6,6C ( 20 F) - the layer middle
=-4,9C (23 F) - a bottom top. A layer
= - 5,7C( 21 F) - the top compare a layer
=-3,2C. ( 26 F) - the bottom of snow
= - 2,9C ( 26.8 F) - at the earth
The temperature is resulted taking into account difference correction in indications of different thermometers. Checking was spent on the thermometer having the passport with instructions of the reference to the checking standard.
#5. Gauging of density every snow on different layers.
It has been revealed (at our uneducated sight) 4 layers of various snow (the professional can find and more to signs known to it, but these layers approximately differed) and the density 3 of them is measured:
The top layer, in the thickness ~ 84 cm (2.75 ft) had relative density 364,583 kp/m3 or 3.04 lb/gal, (sum 3 “bowl of Shura” as 1,6 litre (0.422 gallon) = 4,8 litre (1.268 gallon) - weighed as 1,750 kp or 124 pdl )
The centre, in the thickness ~ 60 sm (2.0 ft) had relative density 402,083 kp/m3 or 3.35 lb/gal, (sum 3 “bowl of Shura” on 1,6 l (0.422 gallon) = 4,8 l (1.268 gallon) - weighed 1,980 kp(165 pdl) - character of snow reminded a croup though was not friable, and its structure was continuous.
The bottom layer, in the thickness ~ 30 … 40 cm (1... 1.3 ft) had relative density 486,458 kp/m3 or 4.059 lb/gal, (sum 3 “bowl of Shura” on 1,6 l (0.422 gallon) = 4,8 l (1.268 gallon) - weighed 2,335 kp (165 pdl) - was characterised by word “as brick” (c) Shure.
The lowermost layer, in the thickness ~ 5 … 10 cm (2…4 in) we did not measure:
-1 because it was difficult for picking out, and in
-2 because it was close to ice (though and it is easier it) It has been directly linked to the earth and formed, most likely, in the earliest autumn when the dropping out sleet was taken by frosts. Its top part it is permanent passed in above layer and to it has been strongly linked. The border of layers has been washed away. Its bottom part has as though sprouted grassy plants.
#7. The shift test.
The most interesting, and informative the test for efforts of shift which allow judge directly possibility of occurrence "board" in the given place in the given conditions was indicative.
As to do shift of layer in the size of 1 m Х of 1 m (3 ft 3 in x 3 ft 3in) we have counted not actual on presence of absence Gerakl and winner Japanese sumo wrestler, we were limited to carry out such test for columns size 20 Х 20 cm. And then it is possible count and effort at shift in 1 sq. m (10.7 ft2) of similar snow, and receive estimation possibility the most natural shift when the weight this column will be more than this effort. Its truth it is necessary still multiply by cos (cosine) of this angle bias of slope, but it is necessary do it already then.
The column of the specified size, by height border of division the top and following layer has been cut out. It was identified approximately. The top layer is that has dropped out practically at us and some previous days have been put on slope literally. The thickness of this layer has be 84 cm (2.75 ft); density - 364,583 кГ/м3 (3.042 lb/gal ), whence it is possible receive weight of this column = 14,583 kp (kg of force or 1034 pdl)
The scheme of experiment is visually shown on this photo
The effort was put by means of the lever because need its size has turned out considerable. The dynamometer was used just the same, as well as what weighed snow.
On a following photo the moment of destruction (particularly - layer shift) is well visible
The effort which has been enclosed thus, was = 52,76 kp (3742.3 pdl)
The sequence of shift is visible in following photos. And all process can be seen on video under the reference: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1i0Ko3-73B8SxsRCrg_xhDDCVj-GqZhKR/view?usp=sharing
It is necessary notice that similar shift tests we have spent two. But on the first measuring we had not time notice the maximum indications number of dynamometer. It was necessary for me do all once again.
If the attentive reader notices, it will be clear that the dynamometer is calculated on efforts to 50 kg. At us it has turned out 52,76. For certain it has stock on range because differently it should break right after limit excess equal 50 kp. Even if behind limit of range it increases the set error (10 gramme on range border under passport for device) the effort has all the same exceeded that weight which had column of test snow in 3,617 times. Even if effort increase on cоs 19о
= 0,94551 the effort demanded on shift in 3 times will exceed weight of the layer, and therefore such shift under natural conditions is simply impossible basically.
As inquiry: the force of shift for 1 sq. m (10.7 ft2) makes 1319 кp/m2 or (11.6 lb/gal) , thus the weight 1 м2 (1550 sq in) at height of 84 cm (2.75 ft) makes 291,13 kp (20650 pdl).
It was “the short answer with mathematics” to all fans of "boards of snow ", avalanches and other initial troubles for I.Dyatlov group in 1959. And then snow was more less.
********) I have forgotten to finish the small note...
The motive power which should move layer of " board of snow " in absence of resistance, should be equal to the weight increased on sin (sine) by corner bias slope. Or, in our case:
291,13 Х 0,3255 (sin 19 degrey.) = 94,782 kp or in 13,9 times are less than effort to shift.
You mast made did deeper conclusions...